30 January 2009

Tambora MountainThe Year Without a Summer

The 1815 eruption of Tambora is the most powerful event of its kind in historical time.Volume of the material which burst up to the air attained of about 100 - 150 km3 and the height of eruption column about 30 - 40 km above the summit. Energy estimation attained of about 1.44 x 1027 erg . Since the 1815 eruption, the top part of the volcano collapsed and formed a caldera with 7000 m wide of diameter.

Tambora spewed sulphur-rich gases that rose to a height of 28 miles and created a giant sun filter in the northern hemisphere that caused the spring and summer of 1816 to be extremely cold across Europe and North America. Snowfalls and frost occurred in June, July and August and all but the hardiest grains were destroyed. Destruction Tambora Mountainof the corn crop caused farmers to slaughter their livestock. Soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry. Sea ice formed in the Atlantic shipping lanes and glaciers advanced down mountain slopes to exceptionally low levels. Hundreds of thousands died of starvation as crops failed, touching off a wave of migration to the American South and Midwest. Farmers repeatedly tried to get a crop in the ground, but each time a killer frost withered the tender roots. Corn and grain prices shot up to $5 and $10 per bushel and oats that had been 12 cents a bushel rose to 92 cents. Riots erupted in Britain and France as starving citizens broke into grain warehouses and left them empty. Violence was even worse in Switzerland where the government declared a national emergency and grain purchases from Russia were intercepted at the border and confiscated by hungry citizens.

Tambora MountainIn Indonesia itself, 83,000 died as a direct result of the eruption, most from the hot gases and many from being bombed by hot lava being ejected for miles around Mount Tambora. It has been estimated that 93 cubic miles of ash were ejected, and it took five years before the green shoots of vegetation began to poke through the land covered with volcanic ash to a distance of 250 miles from Tambora.

Giant Tambora Crater
Tambora CraterIt is difficult to imagine standing in the giant craters that this area. Family-Edelweiss family that grows in between the layers, layer plains craters also provide unique. That craters this truly extraordinary. Remote base craters visible Tambora plains that are very broad. Interestingly, on the basis of some of the craters visible grass growing. A small volcano, which is in the midst of craters more exotic and spectacular of the Tambora. In the language of Bima volcano is called Doro Afi Toi, which means a small mountain of fire. Scenery crater walls that tower is also quite high hit. Layers walls shows how big the eruption that time. The morning sun rises from the east to make the scenery more mysterious craters.

A hill that is seen tapering, barren brown color stand firm in the western crater. Hill also known as a "Doro Meleme" - mountains that taper - that is now the highest peak after 1,815 Mount Tambora eruptions. To reach the highest peak, the lip of the crater you still have to walk again with the travel time about 25 minutes. By the need to be skeptical when you are approaching the peak. If you do not want to slip you must walk carefully because the climbing field is covered with sand and gravel.

Tambora MountainAt the top of this you can find a triangle – a height marker - made of cement at approximately half a meter. From here, other than the scenery of craters, are also visible in the far west peak of Mount Rinjani, and of course the seas off. The truly extraordinary.

The Mount that its eruption that has been change the world and its civilization. Is not excessive if a taste when Mount Tambora as world heritage and history of mountain tourism destination Historical or mountaineering.


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